Project Title Development of a template for the risk assessment for lightning protection system design based on MS IEC 62305
Student Name Mohamad Adib bin Ahmad Fathi
Supervisor Dr. Siow Chun Lim& Ir. Lee Cheng Pay (Duriane Consult)
Year of Completion 2018
Description TIEC 62305: Protection Against Lightning standard serves as the main reference for lightning risk assessment and lightning protection design and installation. Lightning risk assessment is complex and complicated to be used manually. A computer tool or software could simplify the work in lightning risk assessment. A template was developed in Microsoft Excel for lightning risk assessment. From the literature review, several features of a good risk assessment tool were identified. The development focused on features such as user-friendly interface, multiple zone and service calculation capability, comprehensive, informative, and able to suggest protection measures. All calculations and parameters for risk calculation were identified from IEC 62305-2: Risk Management. The calculations and interactive user interface were made through the use of Excelís built in functions and coding in VBA. The template was validated through comparison of results between the template, IEC 62305-2, and other software in three different case studies. In all three case studies, the template achieves results similar to the results in IEC 62305-2.

Results / Conclusion Fig. 1 and 2 show the User Interface (UI)of the template. User is required to input the specification and information such as physical dimensions, lightning flash density as well as collection area. Then, the template will perform a series of calculation before yielding the risk assessment outcome as shown in Figure 2. As shown in Figure 2, the red coloured values indicate that the risk level is higher than recommended by the MS IEC: 62305 standards. The template will then advise the user on what are the possible solutions to reduce the risk level to well below the permissible level as shown.The developed template was then validated in terms of its functionality as a risk assessment tool for lightning protection. Validation was done by performing calculations for R1 using the template and then compare the computed values with the corresponding case studies and examples found in the standards as well as several other existing software. As shown in Table 1, the template yields similar results to the results in IEC 62305-2 and in other software as well.In short, by using this template, lightning protection designers and engineers can perform lightning risk assessment computation effortlessly without having to go through the numerous formulae and steps which they have to consider if they were to do it manually. This not only improves the efficiency of their design work but also ensure that their design of lightning protection system is done in adherence to the standards.

 

Project Title IoT Based Mobile Wastewater Monitoring System
Student Name Nik Ili Afini bt. Nik Ahmad Najmi
Supervisor Dr. Nor Azhar Mohd. Arif
Year of Completion 2018
Description The issue of water pollution has led to this project in order to curb water crisis. A smart monitoring system for wastewater was designed and developed in this project, enabling it to be used to monitor treated wastewater prior to its discharged. The designed system is capable of monitoring three water quality parameters and triggering alert messages for any values that did not meet the discharged standards set by the Department of Environment (DOE). Sensors data are collected wirelessly and sent to the cloud for further analysation processes to take place. This system is also capable to generate report via the IoT platform for record purposes. The implementation of this system utilizes the use of LoLinNodeMCU V3, multiple water quality sensors such as the temperature sensor, pH meter and turbidity sensor as well as an IoT platform. Results obtained were displayed in both ThingSpeak website and widget for the convenient use of users. Furthermore, data collected were analysed to determine the relationship between each parameter of different water samples monitored and their effects on water qualities. The results obtained slightly differ to the theoretical values which might be due to some variables such as natural shading, condition of samples taken from, acidity or alkalinity of water samples and so on.

Results / Conclusion Few water samples were taken to be tested, where the data can be monitored in real-time by using the ThingSpeak server. Not only that, the application of the ThingSpeak widget allows the convenience of monitoring the data by just using any mobile devices. Thus, this reduces the physical action during testing where there is no need for the operator to be on-site. Since this system was developed in such a way that it is able to monitor wastewater parameters prior to its discharged, and not to actually verify whether or not the sewage treatment plants (STP) complies with the discharged standards, five random water samples were taken and monitored. The collected data were then sent to the ThingSpeak server where monitoring and analysing were done. Based on the collected data monitored, the parameters satisfy the acceptable range by the discharged standards. However, some parameter might differ due to some variables.

 

Project Title Development of a template for the risk assessment for lightning protection system design based on MS IEC 62305
Student Name Mohamad Adib bin Ahmad Fathi
Supervisor Dr. Siow Chun Lim
Year of Completion 2018
Description IEC 62305: Protection Against Lightning standard serves as the main reference for lightning risk assessment and lightning protection design and installation. Lightning risk assessment is complex and complicated to be used manually. A computer tool or software could simplify the work in lightning risk assessment. A template was developed in Microsoft Excel for lightning risk assessment. From the literature review, several features of a good risk assessment tool were identified. The development focused on features such as user-friendly interface, multiple zone and service calculation capability, comprehensive, informative, and able to suggest protection measures. All calculations and parameters for risk calculation were identified from IEC 62305-2: Risk Management. The calculations and interactive user interface were made through the use of Excelís built in functions and coding in VBA. The template was validated through comparison of results between the template, IEC 62305-2, and other software in three different case studies. In all three case studies, the template achieves results similar to the results in IEC 62305-2.

Results / Conclusion Fig. 1 and 2 show the User Interface (UI)of the template. User is required to input the specification and information such as physical dimensions, lightning flash density as well as collection area. Then, the template will perform a series of calculation before yielding the risk assessment outcome as shown in Figure 2. As shown in Figure 2, the red coloured values indicate that the risk level is higher than recommended by the MS IEC: 62305 standards. The template will then advise the user on what are the possible solutions to reduce the risk level to well below the permissible level as shown.The developed template was then validated in terms of its functionality as a risk assessment tool for lightning protection. Validation was done by performing calculations for R1 using the template and then compare the computed values with the corresponding case studies and examples found in the standards as well as several other existing software. As shown in Table 1, the template yields similar results to the results in IEC 62305-2 and in other software as well.In short, by using this template, lightning protection designers and engineers can perform lightning risk assessment computation effortlessly without having to go through the numerous formulae and steps which they have to consider if they were to do it manually. This not only improves the efficiency of their design work but also ensure that their design of lightning protection system is done in adherence to the standards.

 

Project Title Laser Communication for Voice over Beam Transmission
Student Name Mohamad Hazrol Bin Md Damiri
Supervisor Dr. Wong Sew Kin
Year of Completion 2017
Description In this project, the Laser communication for voice over beam transmission system is studied and developed. Nowadays the most common system used in industry is mainly based on complex high trajectory laser transmitter. In this work, a transmitter with low voltage integrated circuit, LM386 is used asthe audio power amplifier. The LM386 is connected to a laser diode in order to transmit the signal from the input. For the laser beam receiver a solar panel will act photovoltaic cell to detect the incoming of signal from the beam of laser diode. Finally, the receiver circuit is connected to a speaker that can read and display the audio output

Results / Conclusion This project is aimed at designing a Laser communication for voice over beam transmission system. This device aimed at promoting new wave of communication process in transferring signal and information over free space area. If the beam transmission is being distract or blocked it may interrupt and affect the outcome of the signal in the receiver due to external disturbance by nature. Thus, the laser beam is unable to travel in full due to the obstacle existence. Moreover, the audio signal that is send by the phone to the transmitter can be fully transfer directly to the solar panel. The solar panel are able to received transmitted signal by the laser beam and convert back to the original signal before it is send to the speaker. The pitch and volume of the sound produce by the speaker can be adjust by using a potentiometer in the receiver circuit. This system is designed to fulfil different range of laser wavelength according to the light spectrum chart.

 

Project Title Portable Solar Power Supply
Student Name Cheong Zhi Hui
Supervisor Dr. Ali A. F. Fard
Year of Completion 2017
Description The aim of this project is to design and to construct a small scale and cost effective portable solar power supply for the rural area and construction site where grid electricity is not available. The system architecture of this machine has four major parts: two 20W solar photovoltaic panel, 10A charge controller, 12V, 34 AH battery and 1000 W power inverter. Solar panel used to harness the solar energy which used to charge the battery via a charge controller. A battery indicator was installed to allow user to monitor the capacity voltage left inside the battery. A modified sine wave inverter was installed to generate AC power supply source used for powering up some low power appliances.

Results / Conclusion Solar energy as a renewable source, environmental friendly, save money, consistent and reliable source was used to meet certain electricity demands.

 

Project Title Design of Arc Fault Current Sensor in Low Voltage Switchboard
Student Name Khaw Yan Ngee
Supervisor Kuan Lee Choo
Year of Completion 2014
Description Arc fault is a high impedance fault and it can cause the switchboard to explode. However, circuit breaker is not designed to protect the switchboard from arc fault. In this project, the arc fault detector is designed using Matlab and Simulink as shown in the figure below. The protection system consists of voltage drop detector, shoulder detector and asymmetry detector. The circuit breaker trips when all the detector gives a signal to the circuit breaker. This is done to prevent unwanted tripping. Voltage drop detector detects the potential difference across the busbar. Shoulder and asymmetry detectors detect the time domain characteristic of arc fault current.

Results / Conclusion After the arc fault occurs at 0.04 s, the time taken for the voltage drop, shoulder and asymmetry detector to send a signal to circuit breaker is 9 m, 20 m and 40 ms respectively as shown in the figure below. Therefore, the circuit breaker trips after the arc has occurred for 40 ms. According to H. B. Land, the switchboard will start to emit smoke after a 1000 A arc occurs for 50 ms. Thus, the clearing time of the protection system is acceptable. The arc fault model used in this project is the combination from various papers. It will be better if experiment is conducted on the low voltage switchboard to verify the resistance value of series arc, shoulder width and degree of asymmetry of arc fault current under different loading condition.

 

Project Title Study of the Operation of HVDC Transmission System with Fault at AC Terminals
Student Name Tan Taisheng
Supervisor Prof. Kartik Prasad Basu
Year of Completion 2013
Description The project discusses the operation of HVDC transmission to transmit huge amount of power through submarine cables from off-shore wind power sources to the national grid. The main objective is to simulate power system having HVDC lines under normal operating condition and under short circuit conditions at AC terminals. It highlights the advantages of HVDC transmission. MATLAB-SIMULINK software is used for the simulation. VSC (Voltage Source Converter) HVDC converter is used both for rectifier and inverter stations for bipolar transmission. Three types of simulation are carried out, namely, (i) No fault, (ii) Line-to-line fault and (iii) Double line-to-ground fault. Fault is created at AC terminal of station 2.

Results / Conclusion Phase A and phase B are connected to ground. Fault is applied at t = 2.1s. No voltage appears across phase A and B. Voltage at phase C is reduced in magnitude. High current peak appears during fault. When the fault is cleared, the system recovers back immediately to steady state condition.

 

Project Title Design and Implementation High Power Factor Electronic Ballast for Lighting Applications
Student Name Fong Ee May
Supervisor Dr. Hussain S. Athab
Year of Completion 2011
Description Single Switch Electronic Ballast with high power factor correction is introduced in this project. The proposed single switch electronic ballast is based on the combination of a boost converter and push-pull resonant inverters. The converter demonstrates a high power factor to the utility line in addition to providing a high-frequency voltage to the fluorescent lamp. A high power factor at the input line is guaranteed by operating a nonconventional boost stage in discontinuous conduction mode.

Results / Conclusion By automatically varying the switching frequency gradually to the resonant frequency (fo=65 kHz), a high ignition voltage is supplied to the lamp and it ignites immediately. The following figure shows the experimental input voltage and input current waveforms of the electronic ballast. It may be seen from the following figure that a sinusoidal input current is achieved, and hence high input power factor.

 

Project Title Microcontroller Circuit for Switching Three-Phase Ramping Voltage
Student Name Khairul Azhar Rasimun
Farhan Mariz bin Mohamed
Supervisor Ali Asghar Fathollahi Fard
Year of Completion 2011
Description The project is about controlling the switching of three-phase ramping voltage using a microcontroller circuit. The switching algorithm is done by the use of hard-coded time delay for the reference phase and timer interrupts of 8052 microcontroller for the other two phases. Simulation of the code was done in simulation software before it was tested in the real hardware environment to ensure accuracy. With a working switching control for three-phase stepping ramping voltage algorithm and circuit, the inrush current tests were done using a wye connected three-phase transformer of 3x1 kVA rating as an inductive load. The figure shows the final hardware design of the project. Each circuit and component is labeled to distinguish them easily.

Results / Conclusion Inrush current tests have been applied to three-phase transformer load, and conclusion drawn was that inrush current was successfully suppressed to certain extent.

 

Project Title Location of High Impedance Fault in Transmission Lines
Student Name Puah Kuan Hua
Supervisor Prof. Krishnathevar Ramar
Year of Completion 2009
Description This project discusses two methods of locating symmetrical and asymmetrical high impedance faults (HIFs) in a transmission line using traveling waves. The first method uses the time signals of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the time of arrival of the traveling waves at both ends of the line in order to determine the fault location. The second method uses the information available at one end of the line only to locate the fault and hence does not require either GPS or simultaneous sampling at both ends of the line. In order to test the fault location methods, a suitable model for HIF is constructed first. The transmission line along with the fault model is simulated in PSCAD for symmetrical and asymmetrical faults. The simulated current data are then exported to MATLAB to do phase to modal transformation and perform Digital Wavelet analysis. The fault location is determined from the 1-D Wavelet Coefficients.

Results / Conclusion From the simulation results, it has been found that the two methods of locating HIF are very accurate and reliable. The percentage error has been found to be less than 0.2%.

 

Project Title Design of High Voltage Generator
Student Name Then Sen Li
Supervisor Dr Normiza Mohamad Nor
Year of Completion 2009
Description In high voltage engineering study, the demand for high voltage impulse generators is great. In the recent era, high-voltage pulse generator is currently being adapted for a wide variety of applications such as in the industry (laser welder, metal forming, steel casting, fabric sterilization), in the medical (eye surgery, bone repair) and in the military (energy weapons, modern radar systems, high-power lasers, high-power microwaves, particle-beam weapons, and nuclear effect simulator), Many studies and testing of high voltage systems have to rely on the international manufacturers for its high impulse generator, which is rather expensive and large in size. Due to that, this project is to build an impulse generator with a reasonable cost and effort. Also, it is aimed to achieve a small in size of the test circuit which is portable and suitable for any tests or studies. The project involves of the appropriate design of impulse generator and associated control circuits. This includes the design of the test circuit, which can generate the amplitude of the applied impulse in the order of kilo Volts, and with rise times in the microsecond range. A prototype of HV Marx generator, which is originated by E. Marx in 1924 is designed and constructed in this project. Marx generators can be considered as the most commonly used pulsed power sources and have been widely applied in the pulsed power field because of their versatility, simplicity and reliability. The design of the compact high voltage impulse generator, and its measuring systems in this study priorities the costs, size, safety and reliability of the systems.

Results / Conclusion Overall objectives of the project which are to design and build a High Voltage Generator at a reasonable cost, effort, and small in size are achieved. However, there is no proper measurement can be made in this project due to unavailability of the high voltage probe. This is just a minor hiccup in the overall project management, which can be finished with extra time and budget as a future work.

 

Project Title Intelligence Path Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance Mobile Robot
Student Name Mohamed Amin B. Byross, Abdul Faisal Mohamed
Supervisor Mr Othman M. S. Ahtiwash
Year of Completion 2008
Description The main core of this project is to design a prototype mobile robot with some intelligent features to perform certain tasks autonomously. The robot is designed to move from a starting position to a target destination freely or by following a predefined path depending on the chosen mode of operation. The robot is equipped with obstacle avoidance capabilities to avoid collision with any objects in its path during its movement. In this project, the robot can be operated in manual or autonomous mode. In autonomous mode, the robot can perform certain tasks by tracking the path intelligently and at same time able to avoid any collision with obstacle on the path. In the manual mode, the robot can be controlled wirelessly through RF module, or can be controlled through serial port by connecting the robot directly to the serial port of PC. The robot was interfaced to the PC via Matlab GUI. The robot also attached with web cam so the user can view the video on PC to have more effective and simple manual operation control.

Results / Conclusion The project achieved the targeted objectives and was a success. A complete prototype mobile robot is designed and fabricated with the ability to operate and control manually and autonomously. Tests and demonstrations carried out successfully, and the robot was able to move autonomously and can avoid any objects while it moving from one position to another. Different types of operation modes were tested and the robot was moving according to the developed programs and responding accurately to the required mode of operation.
Live demo link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EaTxxxYI8q0

 

Project Title Design of an Alternative Energy Saving Electronics Ballast Florescent Light
Student Name Lee Yuen How
Supervisor Dr Gobbi Ramasamy
Year of Completion 2007
Description The most commonly used lamp for lighting in Malaysia is the 40W fluorescent lamp, which uses magnetic coil ballast. Few years ago, electronic ballast fluorescent light was introduced that claimed to have high efficiency in terms of its brightness (Lux) over power consumed (Watt), hence it is called energy saving light. However, the light failed to capture the market of magnetic ballast light due to several drawbacks. The electronic ballast florescent light produces very high current harmonic and low power factor. Moreover, the electronic ballast is found too sensitive to voltage/current spikes (created by lightning) and voltage sags (due to large load switching). In this study, new electronics ballast is designed that has high Lux/W ratio, higher power factor, current harmonic less that allowable 25% (total harmonic distortion, THD) and it is made not to fail from normal operation during voltage/current spikes and voltage sags. Hence, the proposed electronic ballast florescent light is believed to be a solution for energy saving and reliable lighting applications.

Results / Conclusion The ballast which is sold in the market has high THD of 143%. The problem is solved by adding a valley-fill type circuit with a suitable value of LC filter. Hence, the THD is reduced to 24.6% which is within the limit of 25% standard set by the Public Works Department. The power factor of the improved electronic ballast is increased from 0.5 to 0.815. The efficiency of the lamp is increased as well with the increase of power factor. The light output produced by the improved electronic ballast is 25% greater than the magnetic coil ballast with less input power. Hence, the energy save is around 30% which promote efficient usage of energy. The electronic ballast is more robust and reliable than the low power factor electronic ballast found in the market.

 

Project Title Real Time Monitoring and Analysis System for Power Quality
Student Name Phang Yoke Yin
Supervisor Mr Mahendra V. Chilukuri
Year of Completion 2006
Description This project proposes the development of a PC-based data acquisition system that provides real time monitoring of voltage and current at the customerís point of common coupling (PCC). Any disturbing events sustained by the user throughout the monitoring period will be recorded. Then post acquisition analysis will be performed based on the data collected. The main aim of the project is to conduct preliminary power quality study at any userís premises and to identify the power quality problems faced by the utility and consumers, particularly voltage disturbances and distortions. The DAQ system can be divided into two major parts, namely hardware and software. For hardware design, the type and specifications of the instruments are determined. As for software, the designing and programming are done using the National Instruments LabView software.

Results / Conclusion In this project, a data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring power quality disturbances had been developed. Although the cost of sensors, computers and software are high, and the time consumed in programming is long, the versatile data acquisition system can ease the tedious work load of data logging and analysis. The development stages of the DAQ system were divided into hardware and software parts. The software part was sub-divided into data acquisition program and data analysis program that was written using NI LabVIEW. The data acquisition program was capable of detecting and logging of power quality disturbances such as sags and swells, transients, unbalance. Basic parameters calculations for harmonics, active power, fundamental frequency, peak to peak voltage etc were also included in the DAQ system. Remote monitoring was available where the monitoring computer could be accessed and controlled remotely. Other than that, the acquisition program offered e-mail notification feature, whereby e-mail would be sent whenever disturbance was detected or error had occurred. The DAQ system could perform continuous monitoring as long as the operating environment was suitable. This project can be extended to develop wide-area power quality & energy monitoring system for analysis and diagnostics.

 

Project Title Design of an Offline Current Estimator Device for Domestic Concealed Electrical Installations
Student Name Sreem Karini V. and Uthayandran M.
Supervisor Dr Gobbi Ramasamy
Year of Completion 2005
Description This project developed a current estimator device for measuring the current flowing in the domestic concealed electrical wiring. This device also overcomes the limitations of other conventional meters like the in-line ammeter and the clamp-on meter. The concept applied is that a current carrying conductor would generate a magnetic field around it which is directly proportional to the magnitude of the current. This magnetic field will then induce a voltage proportional to its magnitude in the sensor of the current estimator. In order to design this device there were three stages. First the determination of the existence of a magnetic field when two conductors of equal and opposite current is placed close together. Next was to determine the relationship between the voltage induced in the estimator circuit and the actual current flowing. Lastly, the device was tested on actual domestic electrical installation for accuracy and calibration. Results obtained showed that there is a magnetic field generated around the two conductors and the voltage induced is linearly related to the current flowing. However it was also found that the inconsistent depth of the cable within the wall influences the accuracy of the current estimator circuit. With further development on this device this limitation can be overcome and will be able to define a new form of an offline current measurement.

Results / Conclusion A current estimator device was developed to estimate the current flowing for concealed domestic electrical installation. It is able to estimate currents from 0.1 A to 15 A. This device not only provides convenience but also safety features for electrical contract work. From the experiments conducted it has been proven that two current carrying conductors of equal magnitude but opposite direction placed close to each other does produces a magnetic field. Though the magnitude of the magnetic field is small but it is found to be sufficient for current estimation. This positive result obtained encouraged further research into ways to exploit the use of this small magnetic field for the estimation process. Further research is being carried out to accurately determine the relation between the voltage induced in the device and the actual current drawn by the load. With the careful modification of this relation a more precise current estimator device will be viable.