Dear Students, starting this semester, your FYP should be a research based FYP. The guideline for research based FYP and an example is listed below. A briefing on research based FYP will be given by the faculty during the first/second week of Trimester 1 2013-2014. Please see MMU Bulletin for any update.

Thank you,
FYP Committee

FYP Related Forms

  1. FYP report template
  2. Link to FYP ProjectProposal Browser
  6. FYP Claim Guidelines
  7. Student Final Year Project Showcase
  8. Turnitin Student Procedures
  9. Similarity Index Form
  10. Research Based FYP Guideline
  11. Research Based FYP - Example

Section A

Final Year Project Reference Point
This document lists out some reference points for students to take note when preparing for the final year project presentation and the final year project report. For the format of the final year project report, please refer to Section B: Guideline for Final Year Project Report)

  1. Presentation

a. Content of the presentation should include

For FYP Part I

For FYP Part II

b. Delivery of presentation

For the oral presentation:

During the course of the presentation:

c. Candidate's performance during Questions and Answers

The student should be

During the course of the Question and Answer:

For audience:

For candidate:

2. General Efforts

Candidate's efforts during the course of the project

3. Final Report

a. Quality of the report

* The report format is followed strictly. Kindly refer to Guidelines for Final Year Project Report for the report format.

Summary for report writing guidelines:

b. Achievement of the prroject

As mentioned in the FYP guideline, the project may fall under one of the following categories:

Depending on the nature of the project, the quality of the project may be judged under, but not restricted to, any of the following points:

Section B



The skill to apply engineering knowledge is one of the most important aspects that an engineering graduate must acquire upon graduation. The only way to learn this practical skill is to have a specific engineering problem to solve. One must learn to use all applicable theories in analysing the problem systematically. Experimenting in a laboratory is essential. The process of experimentation involves organisation, observation, familiarisation with various pieces of equipment, working with others, writing and communicating ideas and information. These are the skills required of an engineer.

Report writing is one of the primary professional responsibilities of a practising engineer. The final report of any project is not just a formality. It is a primary product of the engineering efforts and is often the basis for evaluation of the engineer's professional abilities. The report is also a service to the engineering community who needs the information. The report should stand on its own. It is subject to critical analysis by a variety of readers.

A report should include all the necessary sections, targeting at a reader who does not necessarily have any prior knowledge about the project. This guide is prepared to help the students in preparing their Final Year Project reports. To ensure the reports are easy to read following a consistent format, it is IMPORTANT that students FOLLOW STRICTLY the instructions during report preparation.


Candidates intending to submit their report should comply with the following procedures:

Submission point
Submission of soft cover report (2 copies) and softcopy of report in CD (x2 copies)
To be notified by the faculty one week before deadline.
1 week before the 1st day of presentation sessions.
Submission of hard cover final report (1 copy) and softcopy of final report (1 copy in CD)
To be notified by the faculty one week before deadline.
2 weeks after the last day of presentation sessions.


3.1 Number of Copies

For Project II, THREE printed copies of the report are to be submitted to the Faculty:

  1. The first TWO copies shall be in SOFT COVER and submitted to the Faculty for examination. The soft cover copies must be bound using black comb binding. The soft covers can be obtained from the Dean’s Office. One copy will be given back to the student later.

  2. TWO softcopies of the report (including the materials in the appendices) must also be submitted in CD format. The label shall include project title, name of writer and submission date.

  3. ONE final copy shall be in hard cover and bound using PVC or other equivalent material. The sample of this cover is available in the library.

  4. ONE softcopy of the report (including the materials in the appendices) must also be submitted in a CD together with the final report. The label shall include project title, name of writer and submission date.

3.2 Covers and Binding

The hard cover of the final report shall be in MAROON with GOLD lettering. Arial Narrow (Not bold) typeface shall be used.

A blank sheet of paper should be put before the title page and another blank paper should be attached before the back cover.

Font size for front cover of the report (see example in
Appendix A ):
Title of report : Arial Narrow (Not bold), font size 18-point and shall be in uppercase

Name of candidate, ID of candidate, Academic Year, Name of University, Month and Year of report submission: Arial Narrow (Not bold), font size 18-point and shall be in uppercase.

Font size for spine of the report (see example in Appendix B ):
Name of candidate, title of report and year of report submission: Arial Narrow (Not bold), font size 18-point and should be in uppercase.

If the title of the report is too long to fit into the spine, then put as many characters as possible and put ellipses. For example, if a long title like "EXERCISE MACHINE MOTIVATED BY INTEGRATED VIDEO GAME: USB TO HARDWARE CONNECTION" will not fit in the spine, it could be reduced to "EXERCISE MACHINE MOTIVATED BY INTEGRATED VIDEO..." for the spine only. The front cover should still have the full title.

Direction of lettering - run from the top of spine

3.3 Language of Report

Report must be written in consistent style of English.

3.4 Typeface and Font Size

Times New Roman typeface and font size of 12-point should be used throughout the report (except for Appendices), which includes Title page, Dedication page, Acknowledgement page, Abstract, Table of Content page, List of Figure/Table page and the main body of the text. Italics should only be used sparingly for emphasis.

Font size for chapter heading: 22 and bold
Subheading: 14 and bold
Sub-subheading: 13 and bold
Figure/ Table caption: 10 and bold
Body text: 12

For further clarification, please refer to the FYP report template above.

3.5 Paper and Printing

High quality 80gm A4 size paper shall be used. The paper should be white in colour, acid free and 'non-erasable’ kind. For printing, a laser or other high quality printer is recommended.

3.6 Corrections

Corrections of typographical errors, or changes in the text, figures or tables, must be made as cleanly and as invisibly as possible. Correction fluid shall NOT be used. Corrections should be made on the original before recopying or reprinting the problem page.

3.7 Margins and Spacing

The margin on the document must measure according to the following specifications:

Top: 20mm
Bottom: 40mm
Left: 40mm
Right: 25mm

Text should be typed, one and a half-spaced, left-right justified on one side of the paper only. For captions of figures and tables, single spacing can be used.

3.8 Pagination

Page numbers are to be placed at least 15 mm from the edge of the page at the bottom centre of the page.

Every page except the title page must be numbered.

Title page is 'i' but is not numbered. Preliminary pages are to be numbered in lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv etc).

The main text pages are to be numbered in Arabic numerals and all pages must be numbered consecutively and continuously.

3.9 Illustration Material

When photographs are to be included in the report, they shall be scanned. Pages with colour photographs should be printed on a colour printer.

Materials that are small in size should be pasted at the normal page with library paste. Microfiche material should be put into an envelope before it is pasted on the page.

3.10 Usage of colour in report

The usage of colour in the reports should be minimised as much as possible to avoid the excessive usage of colour printers. Colour should only be limited to parts where it is a crucial element of the project.

Some examples where colours should be avoided are:

  1. Graphs

    The usage of colour in graphs can be avoided with the usage of symbols instead. It should be noted that most publications only accept black and white plots instead of colour plots. Therefore, the report should be a practice for the student to prepare as close to the real-world publication as possible.

  2. Tables

    Most of the time, tables do not require colour at all. Students should be reminded that quality of the table content is more important than appearance.

  3. Texts

    This is the same as tables where it is almost insignificant to use colours.

Some examples where colours might be required are:

  1. Image comparison

    When doing image comparison, it might be mandatory to use colour to show the differences

  2. Photographs with colour reference

    Most of the time, photographs use a lot of ink and it should be avoided as much as possible. However, sometimes it is also necessary to show photographs for real-world example.


A report shall normally have three sections: (i) the preliminary pages or the front matter, (ii) the main text or the body matter, and (ii) the reference material or back matter.

(i) The PRELIMINARY PAGES should include the following sections according to the given order:

- Title page

- Copyright
- Declaration
- Dedication (optional)
- Acknowledgements
- Abstract
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- List of Figures, Illustration, etc

(ii) The MAIN TEXT should normally be divided into chapters* such as:

- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Theoretical Background or Review of Literature
- Chapter 3: Method of Investigation or Details of the Design
- Chapter 4: Presentation of Data
- Chapter 5: Discussions on Findings
- Chapter 6: Conclusions and Recommendations

*Chapter divisions shown here are given as examples and might not be strictly followed. Instead, it is up to the writer to properly organize, structure, and present the main text correctly, depending on the nature of the project. Typical length of the main text should be around 50 to 100 pages.

(iii)The REFERENCE MATERIAL may consist of:

- References
- Glossary
- Appendices

4.1 Preliminary Pages

4.1.1 Title Page

The form and contents of the title page must STRICTLY follow the format of the example given in
Appendix C . The title shall be CAPITALISED. The title page is counted as page 'i', however, the number is NOT printed.

4.1.2 Copyright

Please see the format in Appendix D.

4.1.3 Declaration

Please see the format in Appendix E.

4.1.4 Acknowledgements

This is a brief acknowledgement of assistance given to the writer in researching and writing the report. Its page is numbered with a consecutive lower-case Roman numeral. Times New Roman typeface with font size 12 shall be used.

4.1.5 Abstract

An abstract is the summary of the report which contains the statement of what was done, how it was done, the results and the conclusion drawn. It is usually written last after the main body of the documentation is completed. It should not be used to define the purpose of the experiment or to give a general introduction. It should be short and concise, containing only the most critical information meant for the readers who have limited time to read the full report. It is normally limited to 300 words. An example is given in Appendix F together with the typical format of abstract. Times New Roman typeface with font size 12 shall be used. Very often, technical professionals only read the abstract and will continue reading the entire report only if the abstract attracts their interest.

4.1.6 Table of Contents and Lists of Figures/Tables

A table of contents (TOC) shows readers the starting page number of each major section and subsection in the report (see Appendix G ). Times New Roman typeface with font size 12 shall be used. The topics to be covered in the report must be carefully selected and organised. The flow of the topics to be presented is very important in order to guide a relatively novice reader in understanding the whole report. To an experienced reader, the TOC gives a quicker way of finding the information of interest.

With the similar purpose as the TOC, the lists of figures/tables are to enable readers to find the illustrations, diagrams, charts, and tables in the report. Figures/tables must be numbered consecutively in order of appearance (see Appendix H ). Times New Roman typeface with font size 12 shall be used.

4.2 Main Text

4.2.1 Introduction

An introduction is necessary to give an overview of the overall topic and the purpose of the report. The motivation to the initialisation of the project can be included. Its content should be general enough to guide the reader gracefully into the subject materials.

4.2.2 Theoretical Background or Review of Literature

This section is to discuss the theoretical aspects leading to the implementation of the project. Typically, this involves the historical background of the theories published in the research literature and the questions or ambiguities arose in these theoretical works. Citations for the sources of information should be given in the standard bibliographic formats (using square brackets with the corresponding number [1] that points to the List of References). Explore this background to prepare the readers to read the main body of the report. It should contain sufficient materials to enable the readers to understand why the set of data are collected, and what are the salient features to observe in the graph, charts and tables presented in the later sections. Avoid reporting any irrelevant issue.

Depending on the length and complexity of the report, the introduction and the theoretical background may be combined into one introductory section/chapter.

WARNING: Do not copy any sentence from the sources of information.

4.2.3 Method of Investigation or Details of the Design

The project may be in one of the following nature:
(i)Experimental Research
(ii)Design synthesis of hardware/software
(iii)Development and application of theory

Depending on the nature of the project, the approach can be described in one or more chapters.

(i) For experimental research, explanations shall be given with regard to the equipment used to conduct the experiment, the function of each apparatus, how the configuration works to perform a particular measurement, sources of errors and how to minimise them, materials and ways to produce the sample.

(ii) For design synthesis of hardware/software, detailed descriptions on the techniques used shall be given.

(iii) For development and application of theory to solve a particular problem, the techniques used shall be explained in detail. Mathematical derivations that are too lengthy shall be given in appendices. Experiments conducted to verify the theory shall also be documented.

4.2.4 Presentation of Data

The data should be organised and presented in the forms of graphs, charts, or tables in this section, without interpretative discussion. Raw data which may take up a few pages, and most probably won’t interest any reader, could be placed in the appendices.

4.2.5 Discussion on Findings

The interpretation of the data gathered can be discussed in this section. Sample calculations may be included to show the correlation between the theory and the measurement results. If there is any discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental results, an analysis or discussion should follow to explain the possible sources of error.

The presentation of data and the discussions may also be combined into one chapter.

4.2.6 Conclusions and Recommendations

The conclusion section closes the report by providing a summary to the content in the report. It indicates what is shown by the work, what is its significance, and what are the advantages and limitations of the information presented. Additional discussion shall not be added. The potential applications of the results and recommendations for future work may be included. An example is given in Appendix I together with the typical format of conclusion.

4.3 Reference Material

4.3.1 References (Please refer to the IEEE reference style under Section IV D&E)

Every reference quoted or cited in the report must be included in the list of references and numbered accordingly. Citation is required for statement which expresses a fact that goes beyond the common knowledge of the art.

Number your references in the order that you cite them in the text; place the numbers in parentheses.


Theoretical and experimental investigation of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in a random medium has been a subject of intense research for the past few decades [1]-[7]. ……. volume scattering coefficient of the medium is obtained from the Stokes matrix of the single scatterer directly by definition, or by the application of the forward scattering theorem [8]. ……… Previous studies by Fung and Eom [9] and Tjuatja et al. [10] have considered the amplitude correction. ………….. The formula has been developed by Fung and Eom [9]. ……… Phase correction is important in dense random medium [11].

NOTE: If there are more than three authors of an article, book, or presentation, cite the first author only in the text, and use the abbreviation “et al” for all others. When preparing the reference list, however, list all names, regardless of the number of authors.

In reference list, information of the material is required to be entered in accordance to IEEE reference style (section IV D&E).

Avoid URL references; if you must refer to websites, refer only to authoritative websites like the official websites of professional bodies or governments, websites of companies describing their products, and online technical papers. Examples of non-authoritative websites include Wikipedia and blogs.

4.3.2 Appendices

This section contains lengthy materials which are not suitable to be put inside the main text, for example; raw data, equipment and computer programmes. Times New Roman typeface with font size 10 shall be used.


5.1. A
report should be written according to the intended group of readers in mind. It should have a logical flow with a strong explanation to convince the reader on the conclusion(s) of the report . It should be well-written and should provide easy understanding. Excessive technical jargon and slang should be avoided. As far as possible, statements should be supported by relevant and accurate facts, data and numbers.

5.2 The writer should be able to defend all statements by referring to a reliable research work or the research findings.

5.3 Symbols or nomenclature used shall be defined. Standard symbols or acronym normally accepted in engineering field can be used. International System Unit (S.I) shall be used. If you use other units, SI equivalent unit shall be in bracket.

5.4. Equations and formulae should be typed clearly by using an appropriate equation editor and numbered according to its sequence of order within the chapter ( it is good if it is numbered separately for different chapter using Arabic number, for example, Chapter 1, first equation may be Equation 1.1; Chapter 3, first equation may be Equation 3.1). Avoid manual combinations spanning several lines which could get out of alignment, for example:

(y/x) = ax + b preferred compared to:

y= ax + b

5.5. Diagram can include graphs and figures. It can be numbered together or separately with photographs. Diagrams should be easy to understand. Every diagram should be numbered (it is good if it is numbered separately for different chapter using Arabic number, for example, Chapter 1, first diagram may be Figure 1.1; Chapter 3, first diagram may be Figure 3.1) at the bottom of the diagram and should be given an informative title.

5.5.1.Every diagram should have relevant title and should be numbered.

5.5.2.Coordinate units (abscissa) should be written clearly in the graph.

5.5.3.All the data points and lines should be clear - generally it should not be more than 2 or 3 curves in every diagram.

5.5.4.Types of different data points must be shown in a legend.

5.5.5.Every diagram should be referred and elaborated in the text.

5.5.6.The gridlines should be in appropriate intervals.

5.6 Tables of data or results - all tables should be numbered (it is good if it is numbered separately for different chapter using Arabic number, for example, Chapter 1, first table may be Table 1.1; Chapter 3, first table may be Table 3.1) and should have titles. Both the number and the title should be centred above the table.

5.6.1 All tables should have titles and table numbers.

5.6.2 Columns should have appropriate titles.

5.6.3 All units should be clearly identified.

5.6.4 All tables should be referred and elaborated in the text.

5.6.5 Columns can be numbered if the title is too complex. In this case, the elaboration should be given in the text.

5.6.6 Additional notes should be prepared if necessary.


Several reference books on technical writing are available. More guides and information in preparing engineering reports as well as other technical documents may be found in the following references:

1. D. Beer and D. McMurrey, A Guide To Writing As An Engineer, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
2. J.M. Lannon, Technical Writing, 6th edition, New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993.