Subject Code: PPS0016 Objective: This course introduces basic probability and statistics to students. In probability, students are taught the basic concepts of probability and introduced to discrete and continuous random variables, including some special probability distributions. In statistics, students will be introduced to some of the basic terms in statistics and exposed to tabular as well as pictorial presentation of data. Students will be taught sampling distribution for mean, population and variance. Pre-Requisite: None Credit Hours: 3 Student Learning Time: 120 hours Assessment: Quizzes: 20% Tests: 30% Final Examination: 50% References: Assliza, S., Law, C. Y., Lye, C. T., Mislina, A., Ismail, N. & Tan, C.P. (2012). Introduction to Probability and Statistics. Pearson.(Textbook) Dekking, M. (2005). A modern introduction to probability and statistics: understanding why and how. Springer. Devore, J. L. (2009). Probability and statistics for engineering and the sciences. Thomson/Brooks/Cole. Prem, S. M. (2004). Introductory Statistics. 5th Ed. John Wiley & Sons. Rosenkrantz, W. A. (2009). Introduction to probability and statistics for science, engineering, and finance. CRC Press. Soong, T. T. (2004). Fundamentals of probability and statistics for engineers. John Wiley & Sons. Triola, M. F. (2008). Elementary statistics with multimedia study guide. 10th Ed. Pearson. Walpole, R. E., & Myers, R. L. (2007). Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists. 8th Ed. Pearson Education. Weiss, N. A. (2008). Introductory Statistics. 8th Ed. Pearson/Addison Wesley.

### Course Contents

• Descriptive Statistics
Basic terms, types of statistics, population, sample, types of variables. Tabular presentation – frequency, relative frequency, percentage and cumulative
frequency distributions, pictorial presentation – bar chart, pie chart, histogram, frequency polygon and ogive. Measures of central tendency for ungrouped and grouped data. Measures of dispersion for ungrouped and grouped data.

• Events and Probability
Experiment and sample space, events and their occurrences, multiplication rule, combinations, permutations, set operations, venn diagram, tree
diagram, probability of an event, additive and multiplicative rules, conditional probability, independent events, mutually exclusive events, complement of an event.

• Random variables
Probability distributions of discrete random variables and continuous random variables. Cumulative distributions of discrete random variables and
continuous random variables. Mean, variance, and standard deviation of discrete random variables and continuous random variables.

• Special Probability distributions
Discrete - Binomial and Poisson Distributions. Probability formula, probability table, mean, variance, and standard deviation of Binomial and Poisson
distributions. Continuous - Normal Distribution, standard normal distributions. Probability table. Applications to real problems.

• Sampling Distributions
Mean, variance, and standard deviation of the sample mean, probability of the sample mean. Sampling error and non-sampling error. Sampling distributions of a sample mean when the population has a normal distribution, Sampling distributions of a sample mean when the population is not from a normal distribution (Central Limit Theorem). Sampling distribution for sample proportion and sample variance.

### Course Learning Outcomes

At the completion of the subject, students should be able to:

• CLO1 - Organize and analyze data to produce useful representations. (Cognitive, Level 2)
• CLO2 - Calculate the independent and conditional probabilities of various events. (Cognitive, Level 3)
• CLO3 - Calculate the probabilities and descriptive measures of random variables. (Cognitive, Level 3)
• CLO4 - Solve problems related to special probability distributions. (Cognitive, Level 3)
• CLO5 - Determine the sampling distribution for various sample statistics. (Cognitive, Level 3)

### Programme Learning Outcomes

• PLO1 - To acquire basic knowledge and principles of science and engineering.
• PLO6 - To acquire analytical and problem-solving skills.